pp - PAR Packager
pp [ -ABCEFILMPTSVXacdefghilmnoprsvxz ] [ parfile | scriptfile ]...
Note: When running on Microsoft Windows, the a.out below will be replaced by a.exe instead.
% pp hello.pl # Pack 'hello.pl' into executable 'a.out' % pp -o hello hello.pl # Pack 'hello.pl' into executable 'hello' # (or 'hello.exe' on Win32) % pp -o foo foo.pl bar.pl # Pack 'foo.pl' and 'bar.pl' into 'foo' % ./foo # Run 'foo.pl' inside 'foo' % mv foo bar; ./bar # Run 'bar.pl' inside 'foo' % mv bar baz; ./baz # Error: Can't open perl script "baz" % pp -p file # Creates a PAR file, 'a.par' % pp -o hello a.par # Pack 'a.par' to executable 'hello' % pp -S -o hello file # Combine the two steps above % pp -p -o out.par file # Creates 'out.par' from 'file' % pp -B -p -o out.par file # same as above, but bundles core modules # and removes any local paths from @INC % pp -P -o out.pl file # Creates 'out.pl' from 'file' % pp -B -p -o out.pl file # same as above, but bundles core modules # and removes any local paths from @INC # (-B is assumed when making executables) % pp -e "print 123" # Pack a one-liner into 'a.out' % pp -p -e "print 123" # Creates a PAR file 'a.par' % pp -P -e "print 123" # Creates a perl script 'a.pl' % pp -c hello # Check dependencies from "perl -c hello" % pp -x hello # Check dependencies from "perl hello" % pp -n -x hello # same as above, but skips static scanning % pp -I /foo hello # Extra include paths % pp -M Foo::Bar hello # Extra modules in the include path % pp -M abbrev.pl hello # Extra libraries in the include path % pp -X Foo::Bar hello # Exclude modules % pp -a data.txt hello # Additional data files % pp -r hello # Pack 'hello' into 'a.out', runs 'a.out' % pp -r hello a b c # Pack 'hello' into 'a.out', runs 'a.out' # with arguments 'a b c' % pp hello --log=c # Pack 'hello' into 'a.out', logs # messages into 'c' # Pack 'hello' into a console-less 'out.exe' (Win32 only) % pp --gui -o out.exe hello % pp @file hello.pl # Pack 'hello.pl' but read _additional_ # options from file 'file'
pp creates standalone executables from Perl programs, using the compressed packager provided by PAR, and dependency detection heuristics offered by Module::ScanDeps. Source files are compressed verbatim without compilation.
You may think of pp as "perlcc that works without hassle". :-)
A GUI interface is also available as the tkpp command.
It does not provide the compilation-step acceleration provided by perlcc (however, see -f below for byte-compiled, source-hiding techniques), but makes up for it with better reliability, smaller executable size, and full retrieval of original source code.
When a single input program is specified, the resulting executable will
behave identically as that program. However, when multiple programs
are packaged, the produced executable will run the one that has the
same basename as
$0 (i.e. the filename used to invoke it). If
nothing matches, it dies with the error
Can't open perl script "$0".
Options are available in a short form and a long form. For example, the three lines below are all equivalent:
% pp -o output.exe input.pl % pp --output output.exe input.pl % pp --output=output.exe input.pl
Since the command lines can become sufficiently long to reach the limits
imposed by some shells, it is possible to have pp read some of its
options from one or more text files. The basic usage is to just include
an argument starting with an 'at' (@) sigil. This argument will be
interpeted as a file to read options from. Mixing ordinary options
@file options is possible. This is implemented using the
Getopt::ArgvFile module, so read its documentation for advanced usage.
Add an extra file into the package. If the file is a directory, recursively add all files inside that directory, with links turned into actual files.
By default, files are placed under
/ inside the package with their
original names. You may override this by appending the target filename
;, like this:
% pp -a "old_filename.txt;new_filename.txt" % pp -a "old_dirname;new_dirname"
You may specify
-a multiple times.
Read a list of file/directory names from FILE, adding them into the package. Each line in FILE is taken as an argument to -a above.
You may specify
-A multiple times.
Bundle core modules in the resulting package. This option is enabled
by default, except when
-P is specified.
Since PAR version 0.953, this also strips any local paths from the
list of module search paths
@INC before running the contained
perl -c inputfileto determine additonal run-time dependencies.
perl -e '...'
-e, except that it implicitly enables all optional features (in the main compilation unit) with Perl 5.10 and later. See feature.
perl inputfileto determine additonal run-time dependencies.
STRINGusing the function
shellwordsfrom Text::ParseWords and passes the result as
Filter source script(s) with a PAR::Filter subclass. You may specify multiple such filters.
If you wish to hide the source code from casual prying, this will do:
% pp -f Bleach source.pl
If you are more serious about hiding your source code, you should have a look at Steve Hay's PAR::Filter::Crypto module. Make sure you understand the Filter::Crypto caveats!
-l ncursesmeans the same thing as
-l /usr/local/lib/libncurses.soin most Unixes. May be specified multiple times.
Filter included perl module(s) with a PAR::Filter subclass. You may specify multiple such filters.
By default, the PodStrip filter is applied. In case
that causes trouble, you can turn this off by setting the
Since PAR 0.958, you can use an optional regular expression (REGEX above) to select the files in the archive which should be filtered. Example:
pp -o foo.exe -F Bleach=warnings\.pm$ foo.pl
This creates a binary executable foo.exe from foo.pl packaging all files
as usual except for files ending in
warnings.pm which are filtered with
Add the specified module into the package, along with its dependencies.
Also accepts filenames relative to the
@INC path; i.e.
Module::ScanDeps means the same thing as
If MODULE has an extension that is not
.al, it will not
be scanned for dependencies, and will be placed under
/ instead of
/lib/ inside the PAR file. This use is deprecated -- consider using
the -a option instead.
You may specify
-M multiple times.
Make the packaged executable reusable for running arbitrary, external Perl scripts as if they were part of the package:
pp -o myapp --reusable someapp.pl ./myapp --par-options --reuse otherapp.pl
The second line will run otherapp.pl instead of someapp.pl.
Set the program unique part of the cache directory name that is used if the program is run without -C. If not set, a hash of the executable is used.
When the program is run, its contents are extracted to a temporary
directory. On Unix systems, this is commonly
/tmp/par-USER/cache-XXXXXXX. USER is replaced by the
name of the user running the program, but "spelled" in hex.
XXXXXXX is either a hash of the
executable or the value passed to the
3being the most verbose. Defaults to
1if specified without an argument. Alternatively, -vv sets verbose level to
2, and -vvv sets it to
0= no compression,
9= max compression. Defaults to
6if -z is not used.
Here are some recipes showing how to utilize pp to bundle source.pl with all its dependencies, on target machines with different expected settings:
To make a stand-alone executable, suitable for running on a machine that doesn't have perl installed:
% pp -o packed.exe source.pl # makes packed.exe # Now, deploy 'packed.exe' to target machine... $ packed.exe # run it
To make a packed .pl file including core modules, suitable for running on a machine that has a perl interpreter, but where you want to be sure of the versions of the core modules that your program uses:
% pp -B -P -o packed.pl source.pl # makes packed.pl # Now, deploy 'packed.pl' to target machine... $ perl packed.pl # run it
To make a packed .pl file without core modules, relying on the target machine's perl interpreter and its core libraries. This produces a significantly smaller file than the previous version:
% pp -P -o packed.pl source.pl # makes packed.pl # Now, deploy 'packed.pl' to target machine... $ perl packed.pl # run it
Make a separate archive and executable that uses the archive. This relies upon the perl interpreter and libraries on the target machine.
% pp -p source.pl # makes source.par % echo "use PAR 'source.par';" > packed.pl; % cat source.pl >> packed.pl; # makes packed.pl # Now, deploy 'source.par' and 'packed.pl' to target machine... $ perl packed.pl # run it, perl + core modules required
Note that even if your perl was built with a shared library, the
'Stand-alone executable' above will not need a separate perl5x.dll
or libperl.so to function correctly. But even in this case, the
underlying system libraries such as libc must be compatible between
the host and target machines. Use
--dependent if you
are willing to ship the shared library with the application, which
can significantly reduce the executable size.
Simon Cozens, Tom Christiansen and Edward Peschko for writing perlcc; this program try to mimic its interface as close as possible, and copied liberally from their code.
Jan Dubois for writing the exetype.pl utility, which has been
partially adapted into the
Mattia Barbon for providing the
myldr binary loader code.
Jeff Goff for suggesting the name
Audrey Tang <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Steffen Mueller <email@example.com>
http://par.perl.org/ is the official PAR website. You can write to the mailing list at <firstname.lastname@example.org>, or send an empty mail to <email@example.com> to participate in the discussion.
Please submit bug reports to <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Copyright 2002-2009 by Audrey Tang <email@example.com>.
Neither this program nor the associated parl program impose any licensing restrictions on files generated by their execution, in accordance with the 8th article of the Artistic License:
"Aggregation of this Package with a commercial distribution is always permitted provided that the use of this Package is embedded; that is, when no overt attempt is made to make this Package's interfaces visible to the end user of the commercial distribution. Such use shall not be construed as a distribution of this Package."
Therefore, you are absolutely free to place any license on the resulting executable, as long as the packed 3rd-party libraries are also available under the Artistic License.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.